On 25 February 2018, the Patriarchs and Heads of Local Churches in Jerusalem announced the closure of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem as a measure of protest against Israelâs deliberate violation of the status quo and its systematic campaign of targeting Churches and the Christian presence therein. Israelâs Jerusalem Municipality, has demanded that Churches in Jerusalem must pay municipal taxes for their properties and assets, supposedly excluding houses of worship.Â In protest, the Church was closed for three days. Over the years, Israelâs occupation has explicitly and deliberately developed and implemented policies and measures to ensure the Judaisation of Jerusalem. Israel, the Occupying Power, has unlawfully altered the legal status of Jerusalem, amending its 1980 Basic Law to annex Jerusalem as its âunited and eternal Capitalâ, in contravention of international law.
Alongside Israelâs annexation, Israel has implemented policies and laws to forcibly transferÂ Palestinians from JerusalemÂ and to Judaise the City. SuchÂ measures include revoking and denying residency status for Palestinians in the City, preventing child registrations of births, house demolitions, discriminatory planning and zoning, and deliberately restricting the economic life to de-develop East Jerusalem. The Occupying Power has erected physical and administrative barriers, including the illegal Annexation Wall and its associated regime, to separate Jerusalem from the rest of the Occupied Palestinian Territory (OPT), isolating it and its Palestinian residents from the rest of the occupied population.
Over the past few years, the occupying authorities have subjected the Old City of Jerusalem to arbitrary measures of collective punishment, closures and restrictions.Palestinian social and cultural centres,Â as well as religious sites in Jerusalem have been subject to restrictions and attacks. Israelâs targeted measures against Jerusalemâs holy sites includeÂ the closureÂ of the Al-Aqsa Compound by the occupying authorities most recently in July 2017, denying Palestinians entry to the Compound while allowing settlers to enter the compound under the protection of Israeli forces. Meanwhile in February 2018, Israeli authorities attempted to impose staggering taxations on Churches and their property in Jerusalem and have further threatened them with the confiscation and seizure of their property through a Bill initiated before the Israeli Parliament, which was subsequently shelved on 25 February 2018.Â On 27 February, the Israeli Prime Minister said that the collection actions of taxes is suspended.
It should be noted, that churches have offered hundreds of Palestinian families from the Christian community in Jerusalem subsidised housing. This has alleviated a considerable amount of the burden inflicted by Israelâs severe restrictions on housing and planning for Palestinian neighbourhoods and communities in the city. Moreover, Church-run institutions have long provided services to Palestinians in Jerusalem, and beyond, irrespective of their religious affiliation, both free of charge or for a minimal price. Such services include: health care and medical assistance through hospitals and clinics; education through the numerous schools benefiting more than 12,000 students in Jerusalem alone; orphanages; legal services; among many others. If the Jerusalem municipality continues to demand tax payment from churches, this will have a crippling affect on the occupied Palestinian population, who benefit from the charity of the Church. Specifically, the law of occupation dictates that any change of law by the Occupying Power should be administered in the best interest of the occupied population.Â Â Furthermore, given Israelâs Jerusalem Municipalityâs discriminatory policies and projects â in favour of the Israeli population â it is highly unlikely that any of the collected tax would be used for the benefit of the occupied Palestinian population in Jerusalem.
In accordance with the decrees formulated during the reign of the Ottoman Empire, the principle of âstatus quoâ is an arrangement that governs the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and Â other churches and holy sites. This principle was intended to end disputes regarding ownership between the Christian communities and governing authorities, and remains in use to this day.Â The commitment to these unwritten decrees has been traditionally accepted as in the best interest of safeguarding churches and Christian heritage in Jerusalem. Israelâs interference with Church property in this regard, is contrary to international law, which specifies that the Occupying Power is not a sovereign in the territory it occupies and must respect the laws in force in the territory.Â In addition, the law of occupation stipulates that the Occupying Power does not acquire ownership of private property, including property used for religious purposes, charity and education, as well as historical monuments and cultural property â all of which cannot be confiscated.Â Notably, Church property is especially protected as private property under the Hague Regulations.
Israelâs provocations targeting religious sites in Jerusalem should be perceived within the larger context of Israelâs plan to seize control of and Judaise the City, including by administering its religious institutions, as part of its ongoing colonisation process. Cultural rights are guaranteed under international law, namely the Universal Declaration of Human RightsÂ and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.Â According to the UN Special Rapporteur on cultural rights, âcultural heritage is a fundamental resource for other human rights, including the right to freedom of expression, freedom of thought, conscience and religion, as well as the economic rights of the many people who earn a living through tourism related to such heritage.â
In 1982, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) added the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls to the World Heritage Sites in Danger, a status updated in 2017.Â Furthermore, Article 11 of the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property of 1970 prohibits and renders illicit the direct and indirect transfer of ownership of cultural property, including religious sites, by a foreign occupying power. Seeking the protection and preservation for Jerusalem as a whole, its occupied population, as well as its religious and historical sites, the international community must take effective and immediate measures to end Israelâs unlawful and unilateral measures affecting the status of Jerusalem. States must âbring to an end through lawful means any serious breachâ of international law,Â such as that in the occupied city of Jerusalem.
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This statement is endorsed by:
Community Action Center
Catholic Center for Human Rights
Palestinian Human Rights Organizations Council members:
Al Haq Organization – Defending Human Rights
Al Mezan Center for Human Rights
ADDAMEER Prisoner Support and Human Rights Association
Palestinian Centre for Human Rights
BADIL – Resource Center for Palestinian Residency and Refugee Rights
DCI – Defense for Children International â Palestine
Jerusalem Legal Aid and Human Rights Center
Aldameer Association for Human Rights
Ramallah Center for Human Rights Studies
Hurryyat – Center for Defense of Liberties and Civil Rights
The Independent Commission for Human Rights (Ombudsman Office ) â
Christopher Carlson is a full-time student of Religious Studies at Mount Mercy University, USA. He has been with the IMEMC since 2013. (email@example.com)